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The Importance Of Knowing Your Genotype And Your Blood Group Before Marriage

More About Genotype And Blood Group

Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual with reference to a trait or multiple traits. They are the collection of genes passed from parents to the children. Alleles or Allelomorphs are also referred to as the genes. Children born of a parent will have different genotype. Exceptions are seen in cases of twins or multiple births that are fertilized from the same egg. Human beings have two alleles with each pair inherited from each parent. An allele represents a gene.

Before the advent of modern medicine (read about how modern medicine came to Nigeria here), there was high mortality and infant death rates. All these children lost to the cold hands of death were referred to as "abikus". All these happened because there was no knowledge on blood group or genotype. People that get married irrespective of their genetic makeup should not be blamed for their ignorance. But with the advent of modern medicine( read about modern medicine and its advantages in Nigeria ), biological explanations are now being made on the causes of infant death rate, this led to the discovery of sickle cells in Africa, especially in Nigeria. Before marriage, partners should be aware of their genotypes and blood group as the society no long provides excuse for this ignorance (read an interesting article named no excuse for ignorance here). Parents should check the genotype of their children during pregnancy or immediately after birth. This will help to know the health status of the child and what they have to do to sustain and maintain the child's health.

There are four genotypes in humans - AA, AS, SS and AC. AC genotype is not so common and popular unlike the other three. SS and AC are the abnormal genotypes or the sickle cells. The knowledge of genotype is important when choosing life partners. Intending couples should know both their own genotype as well as their partner's genotype at the early stage of their relationship before they are well rooted in love and emotions. Emotions and time spent in the relationship can cloud people’s judgment or decision to break up if they are not compatible, thus, giving birth to sickle cell children and subjecting themselves and their children to pain, torture and agony.

Possible Outcomes of Different Genetic Combination

AA + AA = AA, AA, AA, AA
AA + AS = AA, AS, AA, AS 
AA + SS = AS, AS, AS, AS
AA + AC = AA, AA, AA, AC
AS + AS = AA, AS, AS, SS
AS + SS = AS, SS, SS, SS
AS + AC = AA,  AC, AS,SS
SS + SS = SS, SS, SS, SS
AC + SS = AS, AS, SS, SS
AC + AC = AA, AC, AC, SS

People with the genotype AA are prone to malaria sickness at their early ages. Sickle cell arises when there is any blockage in the blood vessels which inhibits the flow of oxygen. When the red blood cell do not have the required oxygen, there will be changes in its original shape (disc shape) to a "Sickle-like" or "crescent-like shape", Thus, the name "sickle cell". Sickle cell patients experience severe pains in body parts that lack oxygen flow. Their bone marrows will fail to produce red blood cells and this result to anemia. To save this crisis, blood is usually transfused to them.

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In terms of compatibility, someone with AA genotype can marry anybody. It is safe for someone with AS to marry someone with AA genotype. The combinations of AS and AS, AS and AC should not be risked. There is probability of having a SS. Although. Two sickle cells should not even have a relationship or get married. Individuals with the AA genotype should help you prevent genetic abnormalities by marrying the AS, AC and SS.  By this, we are hopeful to eradicate sickle cells in the world.

Blood Groups / Blood Types

The red blood cells that transport oxygen in the body carry two antigens, which are the A and B antigens. These antigens determine the blood group. Blood groups are represented with A, AB, O, and B. When the red blood cell carries only the A antigen, the blood group is 'A', it is 'B' when the blood cell has only the B antigen. When both A and B antigens are present, the blood group is 'AB'. Finally, when there is neither A nor B antigen, the blood group is referred to as ’O’. 
Below is the cross breed of different blood groups and the products (offsprings)

A + A = A or O 
B + B = B or O
A + B = A, B, AB or O
A + O = A or O
B + O = B or O
A + AB = A, B or AB
O + O = O only

The genotype of blood type A is AA or AO. The antigens on the blood cell are A and antibodies on the blood plasma are B.

For blood type B, the genotype is BB or BO with A as the antigens and B as antibodies.

The blood type AB has the genotype to be AB.  The antigens are both A & B, and no antibodies on the blood plasma.

The blood type  O has the genotype to be OO. There are no antigens but has antibodies to be A or B.

Rhesus factor or the 'D' antigen is also found on the surface of the red blood cell. Those with it are seen to be "rhesus positive or Rh+" and those without are "rhesus negative or Rh-". There is a possibility of having both Rh + and Rh -. A person who is Rh + will produce antibodies against Rh - blood cells. A patient with Rh +can receive blood from someone who is Rh + or Rh -. But an Rh - can only receive blood from Rh -.

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Knowing your blood type helps during pregnancy. If the mother is Rh- and the father is Rh +, the fetus can either inherit the Rhesus gene from either the father or mother.  Complications (Rh incompatibility) occur when the Rhesus factor of the fetus contradicts that of the mother. This is common when a pregnant woman has Rh - and the fetus has Rh+. If the blood of the Rh + baby mixes with the mother’s, it can lead to the production of antibodies against the baby’s blood known as Rh-sensitization. To curb this disease, pregnant women should always meet regularly with obstetricians and human anti-D immune globulin or immunoglobulin should be administered to those with the complications.

General Note

*O are universal donors (donate blood to all blood types).  
*AB+ are universal recipients (receive from all blood types).
*A+ can receive blood from A+, A-, O+ & O-
* A- from A- & O-
*B+ from B+, B-, O+ & O-
*B- from B- & O-
*AB- from A-, B-, AB- & O-
* O+ from O+ & O-
*O- from O-

In Conclusion

Knowing one's blood group helps a lot. It determines the donor and recipient of blood transfusion, and also helps in determining paternity. A person with one blood type or group can produce antibodies against the other. For instance, a person with blood type A makes antibodies against blood type B. If this person is given blood of type B, his or her type antibodies will bind to the antigens on the type B blood cells cause the blood to clump together. Compatibility of blood type is necessary before transfusing blood in times of accidents and emergencies.

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you must be a very good teacher to make this piece so simple and self explanatory
i have really acquired enough knowledge from your article.BRAVO

Am reading this for my exam here in Ireland. Great help 

You are a very good teacher for explaining all this, I learnt a lot from this write up I now know what I stand for and how to choose my partner so as not to have sick children. Thanx

and you are a good reader for reading and understanding all of the write up, am glad we could be of help

you have given me a huge satisfaction! am indeed elated with you. so simple and educative may the good lord pave and open greater doors of opportunities for you. thanks alot

I  really enjoyed this write up, thanks and God bless u for the knowledge you have impacted on me.

This is really educating  and informative, keep it up!

Gud Pm sir,
My question is all about AA's prone to malaria?
How can i conquer malaria, drug or any step to make?
Pls your respond needed urgently.

How do people get their genotypes?

Simple, from your biological parents. 

If papa bomboy has a genotype AA and mama bomboy has a genotype AS, which genotype do their children have? What we do in theory is this, you cross each of those letters so that you have AA, AS, AA, AS? Therefore, for each pregnancy and each bomboy they delivery has a 50:50 probability of being AA or AS.

What if their genotypes were AA (for papa bomboy) and SS (for mama bomboy); you do the crossing again: AS, AS, AS, AS. Therefore, it is very UNLIKELY that any of their children will have a genotype outside of AS. 

You will see that I have used the word unlikely because poo happens. They might end up having a child who is either completely AA or SS but whatever happens, a child's genotype is never outside of the parents. Eg. a man and woman who are both AA can never have children with genotype starting or ending with 'S'. If it happens, talk to your landlord (just kiddin').

So for you to get AC, you must have a parent who carries a 'C' in his or her genotype. I hope that answers your question? 

One more thing: Are there any clinical features of Hemoglobin C like Hemoglobin S?

In the case that you're AC, well the good news is that MOST TIMES THERE ARE NO SYMPTOMS, but occasionally, there is JAUNDICE.


Hope that has helped!!!

, fsb
4 Likes 1 Share
Re: Please Explain What Genotype Ac Is by fsb(m): 6:06am On Feb 07, 2008
And just for the case of mentioning genotypes, you could have:

Regular Genotype: AA (healthy as healthy can be)

Traits: AC, AD, AF, AG, A+FAST, AE and AS (not associated with any clinical signs, symptoms or syndromes - they as relatively as healthy as AA)

Genotypes associated with clinical features: SS, SC, CC (are associated with clinical signs, symptoms and syndromes)

Please note that the marriage thing is this, I really don't know what the recent trend is but the important thing is to make sure your genotype of you and your partner don't match up in a way as to produce an children with SS, SC and CC. These children only suffer for nothing!

I hope my post was useful to somebody out there!!!

, fsb

PS: Please note that the list of genotypes above isn't in any way exhaustive. Those are the most common I've mentioned, there are several others.

This is really both educative and informative

Good day. Please I've read your article here and I wish to know further. Which of the genotypes is the best and strongest? I really want my friends to know the truth. Thanks.

I have read several write ups and articles on the above subject but this article leaves a footprint in my academic learning.. Thanks a bunch...you are the best.

I am very happy for dis research and it is good for people to known there blood group before deep relationship.

Good read and all, but i didn't read anything about genotype in Caucasians.

U are a great teacher because I have really learnt alot and I now know how to go about things

Please i am confused on this issue here, can someone with b blood group and genotype BB or Bo marry to a woman  with AS genotype ?

Thanks a milli for the info u just passed to me. Great full 

This Is Nice One, I Believe It Is Everybody Will Has Bcos It Is A Lesson Of Fact. PLS LET MAKE USE OF IT You Especially Lady.

very important and helpful

Thank you for this enlightening write up. 

i so much like the information (knowing your genotype and blood group) given to the world at large, many of our youths today don't know their blood group talk more off  knowing their genotype. but with this information, many will go far in knowing their blood group and genotype.
thanks so much.

I and my partner have the challenge of AS genotype, we both seem not letting go. Pls what do you suggest? Is there any possible way we can still get married? - ohasjude@gmail.com
I hope to read from you ASAP. Thanks

Hey I am 11 years I am an aa in blood type and being an aa u have to combine with an aa or an as.


as a person with AS will I be experiencing muscle pains?

Thanks a lot I really understand it.

Very good.this article is very educative.well done

I gained a lot from reading this article. I never did d genotype test before but I did it after reading this. It will guide me in my future union.


Very informative! thanks

 With profound pleasure ,am over joyed to learn much about what may help one choose the right and compatible marriage partner.

I am an AA and I live this girl who us AS. She has 3 siblings who were SS and they are all dead. This information is very eye opening. But I want to know if it's possible for us to have SS if we marry, as the family has SS in their gene already?

Very Educative

Hi, found this article via my research of 'what genotype am I' - I know my blood group but still have no idea how to find out my genotype... Maybe I'm looking at the wrong places or do I need to see a doctor for this test?
Thank you, I found the article very rewarding and shall bookmark it for further reading and studies. 

Thank you so much for this lovely and informative article. I've shared it among my peers for them to learn too. Thumbs up

wow I really appreciate this
it was very very useful and helpful
more grease to your elbow.
God bless you

So informative.
Thanks. God bless you

It is very comprehensive, very well explained and very usefu.

I had much insight from the piece above,  it propably went a long way to clear some doubts and further explain some stuffs I also find difficulty to understand.  Thank you and continue your good work. 


Thank you for the information. I'm AC, B-ve and I've just been diagnosed with a fatty liver. I am fairly healthy and not overweight and apart form the odd glass of wine not a heavy drinker and I was wondering if my blood has anything to do with It? Thanks

Wow! I have really benefited from your research, keep it up.


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