Effects of Genotypes (AA,AS,SS) To Malaria Proneness and Vulnerability

Effects of Genotypes (AA,AS,SS) To Malaria Proneness and Vulnerability

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People often ask the questions about which genotype is the best or the strongest, there is no direct answer to that since the genotypes have their advantages and disadvantages, take your time to read them below and decide for your self.

Advantages and Benefits of Genotype AA

From our previous article on the various types of Genotype and blood group here, we can deduce that Genotype AA has the uttermost advantage when it comes to choosing a partner for copulation and reproduction( read on choosing a life partner here), People with genotype AA can reproduce with any other genotypes with having the fear of having offspring with the sickle cell disease also known as genotype SS.

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Disadvantages and Cons of Genotype AA

Sequel to a research and tests carried out at  carried at the teaching hospital, University of Uyo, the fact that people with AA genotype are prone and susceptible to Falciparum Malaria (malaria parasite ) was re-established, when 93.3% of the children screened with the parasite were found to be AA genotype while just 5% of the people screened was of genotype AS. These interesting results were discovered during the screening of blood group, hemoglobin genotypes and malaria parasite or M.P (falciparum malaria).

Reason Why AA genotype are Prone to Malaria

Various research from various medical fields in the past has established the fact that malaria parasite(falciparum malaria) gotten by mosquito bites (read on how to prevent mosquito bites here) have a very high rate of oxygen use and consumption, the malaria parasite has also been known to also consume massive amounts of hemoglobin, for survival and during the peripheral blood period/stage of replication and duplication.

Since blood genotype AA red blood cells contain normal hemoglobin both in quantity and structure, thereby resulting in more oxygen binding capacity and fueling of the malaria parasite duplication and replication process. this is the major reason why malaria parasite (falciparum malaria) survives and thrives well in AA genotype compared to other genotypes.

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Advantage and Benefits of Genotype AS

It was also realized during the research that being of blood genotype AS (sickle cell carrier) bestows and confers on you some form of protection from malaria parasite (falciparum malaria) because of the complex lifecycle of the parasite. when a person of AS genotype is infected with the parasite, the presence of the parasite causes the red blood with defective hemoglobin to  rupture prematurely making the Plasmodium parasite to be unable to reproduce or replicate since they need large amounts of hemoglobin and oxygen to do so, this is what happens during the blood peripheral blood stage of replication.

Also, the polymerization of hemoglobin hinders and affect the ability of malaria parasite(M.P) to digest it, in areas or regions prone to Malaria parasite or mosquitoes (West Africa, East Africa, India, e.t.c) , People of genotype AS( sickle cell carrier ) have higher chances of survival than people of genotype AA. Genotype AS ( defective hemoglobin) red blood cells conform and adhere to the parasitized red cells easily than red blood cells of genotype AA ( normal hemoglobin)

Hemoglobin Electrophoresis can detect abnormal hemoglobin forms, Hemoglobin Electrophoresis is a form of gel electrophoresis in which different types of hemoglobin moves at different and varying speeds.  Genotype AS( sickle cell hemoglobin HBS) and Genotype SS( Sickling HBSC) the most common forms can be identified from the process.

 

Disadvantages and Cons of Genotype AS

Also from the initial article on knowing your genotype and blood group here, we can deduce the fact that people with AS genotype are at great disadvantage when they want to choose who to reproduce or copulate with, the reason why is because they are sickle cell carriers and can only copulate with Genotype AA alone, this is to avoid them to have offsprings who will carry the dreaded and disadvantaged  sickle cell disease genotype SS.

 

Disadvantages and Cons of Genotype SS

Read more on Sickle cell anemia or sickle cell disease and how to manage its crises here

Even though people with genotype SS( sickle cell disease)  has the defective hemoglobin advantage, the protective effect on malaria enjoyed by the people with genotype AS does not apply to them, the reason why is because malaria is the most common cause of crises in areas and region prone exposed to the parasite, this is why genotype SS patients( people living with sickle cell diseases) are advised to take and receive anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis treatment throughout their lifetime.

Malaria Chemoprophylaxis is the defined as the preventive treatment of malaria for people with sickle cell disease (SS genotype) and for people who don’t have immunity against malaria traveling to a region prone to malaria. Various Malaria Chemoprophylaxis medications and treatment can be found here. You can also read on other ways to prevent malaria here. You can also read more about sickle cell disease and how to manage its crises here.

So now that you know the advantages and disadvantages of each genotype, you should be able to decide which one is the strongest or best genotype by yourself

 

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