Car Review and Features: 2015 Toyota Camry

2015 Toyota Camry

Released just at the third year after the introduction of the current solid selling model. With the recent innovations in other vehicles such as Honda Accord, Nissan Altima, Ford Fusion, and others, the competition is solid.There is no significant change or adjustment in the appearance of the 2015 Toyota Camry, though it looks modernized, more refined, and more up to date all around. The Camry possesses what Toyota calls a hostile front-end appearance, with LED front running lights in addition to accessible LED automatic leveling lights for the low and high shafts. There is a change in the configuration of the taillight that decreases in with the side sheetmetal, and a ‘beautiful trimming’ (rear chrome bar) that keeps running over the storage compartment. Toyota calls that signal lively.

Rear Chrome Bar

The fairly downmarket “thick” feel of the active Camry’s dash have been wiped away, with an ‘innovative’ search for the inside stack and a freshly discovered consideration regarding materials and points of interest. Upper dash board ranges now have delicate touch trims, and the region only in front of the movement handle gets an encased receptacle for individual gadgets, with a USB port and accessible remote charging cushion.

On the whole, the model is not exactly all-new. The 2015 Camry has almost 2,000 new parts (out of more than 6,000 aggregate) contrasted with the 2014 model. Toyota claims that aside from the rooftop everything is new. Toyota assert to have rolled out some critical improvements to enhance the Camry’s responsiveness.

The engine for the most part was not subjected to a significant change. a 2.5-liter four-barrel motor or 3.5-liter V-6—both snared to a six-rate programmed transmission—or in the Hybrid model, a 2.5-liter Atkinson-cycle four-chamber and Hybrid Synergy Drive framework will power the engine. A new lively SE form of the Camry Hybrid is new to the lineup this year. Generally, we’d say that the Camry V-6 and Hybrid emerge as charming, pleasurable cars, considering all the upgrades this current model is given,

In SE models, Toyota has further enhanced the stability control structure to mediate in a easier manner. Furthermore, a new XSE model has been added to the lineup in view of the accomplishment of the active SE model, and this XSE model is the sportiest Camry yet, as per Toyota. The model possesses 18-inch wheels, extraordinary shock absorber and firmer suspension bushings, as well as stiffer springs. Both of these models of Camry 2015 have a lattice front grille and diverse front belt.

The 2015 Camry is equipped with dynamic safety components than previous models, these safety components include ‘Lane Departure Alert’, ‘a Pre-Collision System with Auto High Beams’, and ‘a Blind Spot Monitor with Rear Cross Traffic Alert’. ‘Versatile Cruise Control’ is likewise on offer.

There are four new distinctive Camry trim levels, these includes; L, SE, XLE, and XSE. These trims basically combine the Camry to an ordinary lineup (LE and XLE) and a sporty lineup (SE and XSE). Furthermore, with some systematic infotainment upgrades this year, the attributes of the new Camry’s is totally able to compete with its adversaries.

Even the Camry LE provides an Entune touch-screen sound and infotainment system with a CD player, auxiliary audio input, USB port, voice recognition, Bluetooth hands-free calling and audio streaming, and six speakers. Nn Entune Premium Audio framework with sound playback capacity is included in Top models, HD predictive traffic, doppler map overlay, and the Entune App Suite.

 

The Exterior

Toyota has constantly attempted to separate the Camry successive models from alternate models in Toyota’s lineup, primarily the Corolla. The 2015 model is a proof that Toyota is all about making its vehicles additionally captivating. The bodywork is totally new, with the exception of the rooftop. The car looks sleeker and more sophisticated with it more natural curves.

Almost all the 2015 Toyota Camry models are presented with a basic five bar chrome grille. On the other hand, a black mesh snout accompanies the sportier SE trim. A fresher trim has likewise been made available for 2015. The carved body of the Camry is 1.7 inches longer than the past model, and presents a perception of beauty and class in the vehicle.

The trendy headlamps are built to sooth the design and edges of the vehicle and the sharp markings traced down the front light, display the LED lamps on some models. This headlamp carving gives the vehicle an intimidating front look that makes the 2015 Toyota Camry a delight to view. The back of the vehicle is moderately plain, it can come in decklid form, while it can be requested with spoilers to give the car a lively viewpoint.

 

The Interior

Within, Almost every surface that the driver or users are prone to utilize have been modified. Toyota has absolutely raised the stakes as far as class and style, even if the alterations are not fundamental, presenting more upscale inside components. The H point seats are perfectly made with every one of them now including the compulsory distinct sewing. The dashboard and the door panel now use more tender materials too.

There will be variation in the colour schemes subject to the trim that you pick. The basic Toyota Camry LE trim accompanies regular grays, while the sportier and SE models are usually in an all-dark/ artificial softened suede material. This is supplemented by red sewing. In the new XSE, the same colour scheme is also found. Likewise, air vents are fitted with back seat of The SE and XSE and also double zone temperature controls within.

 

The Body

Beneath the flawless the 2015 Toyota Camry interior, various basic enhancements have been made. The car is all the more structurally strengthened with the numerous more spot welds. The vehicle permits engineers to alter the springs design and the stuns to increase the responsiveness of the car without devastating the smooth ride that the Toyota Camry is known for.

Safety

The 2015 Toyota Camry is high on Safety with Toyota’s Star Safety System comprising of Electronic Brake-power Distribution (EBD), Enhanced Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), 4-wheel Anti-lock Brake System (ABS), Traction Control (TRAC), and Smart Stop Technology (SST) accessible on all models as well as Brake Assist (BA) 27. Additionally, the 2015 Toyota Camry offers the ten airbags as standard in all models.

The Engine

The standard 2015 Toyota Camry model is fitted with a four cylinder engines that gives an average power of 178 torque and 170 feet of torque. The six speed automatic transmission is the basic standard, regardless of the possibility that you use the manual transmission paddles that is restrictive to the Toyota Camry SE.

The XLE and XSE models are introduced with a engine of 3.5 liter V6 which run at 268 hp at 6,200 rpm and 248 lb. of torque. The 2015 Toyota Camry can go from 0 to 60 mph in around 6.5 seconds. The V6 engine can run 21 miles for every gallon in the city and 31 miles on the highway.

In conclusion, it can be established that the 2015 Toyota Camry is a much needed refresher from Toyota. The Camry has been at the top in light of current circumstances for as long as 12 years, and it is not going to stop on the 2015 Toyota Camry.

The 2015 Toyota Camry is considered to be an excellent family car and can be very useful in promoting one’s personality and social status or prestige.

Cost and Accessibility

The 2015 Toyota Camry is right now available in Nigeria. You can purchase at Toyota Dealer outlets close to you and in Nigeria the price ranges from N7,000,000 to N12,000,000.

Advantages of Using Machinery

Use of Machinery

Machinery is used in every sector of life. They are used in the homes and mostly found in the industries. Before the advent of the use of machines, work done was tedious, the cost of production was low, fewer products are produced with greater man input, and the goods produced were scarce and always available only for the rich. People’s ways of life, industries’ production level, and the economy has been at their peaks with the advent of machines or machinery. Heavy tasks are now done with the help of machines.

Read more about simple machines here

Read more about disadvantages of using machines here

Some of the important advantages of machines are;

  1. Efficiency

They produce more work with little energy and also within a limited time. The workers are more dedicated to their work when they make use of machines. The workers encounter lesser fatigue and tiredness, which increase their efficiency and dedication because only little joules of their energies are lost when working.

  1. Improvement in the Quality and Quantity of Products

Machines ensure high and large production rate. More goods are more produced in larger quantity and better quality. The goods can take any form, shape and brand when machines are used compared to the use of manual labour. There is no more scarcity of goods as they are now much more available in large and diverse quantities.

  1. Reduction in Cost of Production and Profit Making

Goods and services are now produced in low costs and sold to customers in affordable prices. There is a cut in the payment of labour prices because the use of machines has replaced manual labour. Less cost is used to produced goods and this also increases the profit of the producers. Loss is being reduced drastically and profit is being made by the owners of production.

  1. Division and Mobility of Labour

The use of machineries ensures division of labour. Workers have stipulated and specific roles of which they do with the use of machines. Small work is allocated to each worker to enhance speed, accuracy and efficiency.

  1. Accuracy, reliable, availability and fast            

Work done is much easier for workers and production is faster when machines are used. When the machines are in good conditions, they are much more available and there is a great reliability that there will be production for the day. There is less disappointment with the use of machines. There is also accuracy in the work done by the machineries.

  1. Employment Opportunities

The use of machines has opened the opportunities of people to be employed.  Industries with machines employ workers who will operate these machines. Although men are more employed than women in industries that make use of high technologies and machines, but women and youths are also employed. There are skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled forms of labour in industrial sectors because people irrespective of their qualifications and skills are also employed to operate machines inasmuch as they are trained.

  1. Increase in technical know-how

Since workers are trained on how to use their machines, there is a great improvement their technical know-how. A worker that was employed as unskilled becomes skilled. Also, monotony and continuous use of machines by the workers improve their intelligence and creativity as they now have vast knowledge on the use of machines.

  1. High Standard of Living

Machines have made possible for man to enjoy certain things, live better life, live in good and well conducive environments, eat good foods, work less and improve their standard of living. Examples of such are the radio, television, air conditioners, blenders, refrigerators, cars for easy transportation, and mobile phones for communication purposes among others. Domestic works and house chores are now made easy with made easy with the advent of machines.

You can also read about simple machines and its classifications here or read  Read more about disadvantages of using machines here

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Buying A Car

buying a car

Discovering and purchasing an excellent car is not a simple work. There are numerous choices to make and numerous alternatives to weigh, also numerous colors to browse. The cost, obviously, must be a central element, and also how frequently you drive the vehicle. Whether you’re purchasing new or fairly used, from a private individual or a car dealership, comprehending what you need early is quite important. Read on for more info on the best way to purchase a vehicle.

1          Make a rundown of what you’re searching for in a car. Doing a background research, as most things in life, is a smart thought, particularly when buying something as extravagant as a car. Frequently, this implies realizing what you need from your car. Make a rundown of what you’re searching for in your new vehicle. Some criteria incorporate performance, safety, appearance, unwavering quality, size, security, fuel effectiveness, cost, resale value, transmission type, motor size, kilometers, kilometer per liter, mileage (if vehicle is used), and shading.

2          Compose the list regarding how critical the criteria are to you. What parts of your future vehicle would you say you are willing to let go, and which perspectives do you have to get in your potential vehicle? Numerous individuals say they need safety, dependability, and good mileage in their vehicle, when truth be told they’re searching for execution, solace, and look. Be fair with yourself; it will make the purchasing process much less demanding.

3          Consider the favorable circumstances and hindrances of purchasing another vehicle. The scent. The vibe. The touch. Purchasing another vehicle can be similar to a religious affair, however it can exhaust a gap in your wallet in case you’re not watchful. Precisely measure the merits and demerits of purchasing a new car taking into account your circumstance:

The Merits

  • Flexibility of decision: You can purchase the vehicle of your dream not being restricted to the vehicles that are accessible.
  • Better financing: On the choice to fund on another car, your financing rates could be superior to in the event that you purchased a used vehicle.
  • Getting new parts: New vehicles are loaded with new forefront highlights.
  • Realizing what you’re purchasing: When you purchase new, you have an amazing thought of precisely what you’re getting; there shouldn’t be any vulnerability sneaking the foundation about the vehicle’s history.

The demerits

  • Spending more cash: This is important when making a decision decision, you spend more cash on new vehicle than you do on an already used one.
  • Immediate value depreciation: When you drive the car out off the dealer’s place, it loses around 11% of its value. This is often called the “lemon impact.”
  • Higher protection costs: It will cost more to insure a new vehicle.
  • Uncertain data for model year: Is the model you arer purchasing a workhorse or an imperfect wreck? You can’t generally know until later on — at times much later o

4          Consider the preferences and drawbacks of purchasing a used vehicle. Use cars are an extraordinary arrangement for some individuals: they’re moderately modest and the buyer has thought of what’s his expectation from the vehicle is. Still, there are a few detriments connected with purchasing a used car. Know them before you making your decision.

Advantages

  • Cost: Purchasing a brand new vehicle beyond any doubt can be expensive; purchasing a fairly used car from an ordered postings can be way more less expensive.
  • Better Insurance rates. Insurance agencies realize that drivers of used vehicles have a tendency to be more careful and value their protection likewise.
  • Less value depreciation: Your vehicle will deteriorate less if you purchase a used one, the initial deterioration has happened before you buy it.

The demerits

  • Higher seller markup: Sellers realize that they can rake in huge profits on used vehicles. Purchasing a used vehicle as a rule implies a critical seller markup and profit.
  • Higher financing: It is a fact that a used vehicle costs more to maintain.
  • Higher maintenance: Used vehicles typically need to be maintained more frequently and it costs more cash.
  • Unknown mechanical and accident history: When you purchase a used vehicle, you don’t really have any data on who drove it, how regularly it was overhauled, or whether it got into critical accidents.

5          Choose a financial plan. Give yourself a financial plan, paying little heed to the amount you’re spending or what sort of vehicle you need to get. Your financial plan will keep you from overspending and will let you know when and why to leave an bad arrangement.

6          Search for models that fit your criteria and spending plan. Take your criteria established above and the intended expenditure that you’ve made for yourself and begin looking. You can take a look at dealers, vehicle web-pages, or special postings, among others

. Two or three things to recall as you start shopping:

  •  Utilize the web. A vehicle salesperson’s most noticeably bad dream is an informed buyer: a buyer who realizes what he or she needs, would not like to be hasty, and is mindful of what’s accessible in light of their financial plan. Looking around on the web can help you accomplish this.
  •  Save your results. Saving the consequences of your examination will give you a reference view as you proceed with the shopping, particularly in the event that you decide to go into a dealership. Dealers will have falsely high costs that you can spot in the event that you’ve gotten your work done.

 Shopping around

1         Go to dealerships with no expectation of purchasing. In the event that you can, attempt to go on a day/time when the dealership is shut so you can check around unreservedly and not be irritated by any business pitches or arm winding. On the chance that a sales person does approach you, let them know you have no goal of purchasing, are simply doing examination, and would want to look undisturbed. Supposing they keep on dogging you, leave and go to another dealership: you presumably would prefer not to purchase from a dealership that doesn’t regard the client’s wishes.

2          Make sense of what the dealer paid for the car(s) you’re taking a look at. This is known as the “receipt value,” and its moderately simple to get on the web. Equipping yourself with the receipt value gives you a chance to deal beginning low and going up, rather than beginning high and going  down. It’s a vastly improved position to be in.

Verify you discover the receipt cost with all the accessible components you need. The receipt cost doesn’t mean much unless it really coordinates the components of the vehicle you’re attempting to purchase.

3          Get online value quotes to use as negotiating points. Use web-pages, for example, carmudi.com.ng and nigeriacar24.com to shop for quotes that you can use as negotiating advantages when you really choose to arrange in person. Numerous dealerships will likewise have an online branch that will get you a quote in two or three days; use them.

4          Get your accounts all together before you go to the dealer. For the best conceivable deal, its key to have your budgetary strategy laid out before you go to see a car dealer. This involves:

  • Knowing your financial worth in the event that you plan to buy.
  • Looking for a loan from a bank or credit organization.

Maintaining Your Car

how to maintain your car

With such a great amount of attention on car purchasing, few individuals consider the maintenance obligations of a car. A typical car may have upto of 75,000 assembled parts, and the breakdown of only one of these parts can make your car act abnormally. Maintaining a car in great condition will help you to keep it safe and sound, use it for quite a while, and sell it after a while for a better price. Maintaining a car can be extravagant and tedious, yet the extra care you make today will spare you some cash in the nearest future.

below are simple things you ought to be doing to guarantee your car stays in a great functioning state.

  1. Clean your windshield:A messy or dirty windshield is dangerous, as it darkens your sight of the street. So the windshield should be frequently cleaned. In cleaning the windshield, you are to use a soft sponge or wash cloth and a soapy liquid. In the event that your headlights are messy, give them a little wash also.
  2. Check tyre pressure: Maintaining suitable tyre pressure will keep you safe and even spare you a little cash. Tyres that are not properly inflated (this means either under-inflated or over-inflated) do not function correctly as tyres with suitable pressure. Improper tyre pressure likewise increases the possibility of a pop out. In addition, tyres with the right pressure have a more extended life and increases fuel efficiency.

Normally, you will locate your vehicle’s prescribed tyre pressure on a label inside the driver’s side door. A great deal of time was spent before coming up with this number by car manufacturers, and it ought to be used.

Tyre pressure is something you need to watch, as it continually changes as the tyres travels for kilometres and as temperature alternates. That is the reason it is so essential to check it consistently and add up air when required. A school of thought believes that this should be done on a weekly basis, however generally as with the oil check, each fuel fill up ought to be enough to catch any insufficiencies before they turn out to be significant issues.

Checking your tyre pressure can be done under two minutes. For a correct reading, tyre pressure should be checked when your tyres are cool, that is before you’ve driven around on them. In the event that you have been driving around temporarily, let the tyres “rest” for no less than four hours before checking the pressure.

Note the tyre pressure prescribed for your car, usually, it is contained in your users’ manual and on a board inside the driver’s side door. Continuously fill the tyres to this prescribed level, irrespective of the tyre brand, and not to the maximum PSI found on the tyre sidewall (that number shows the maximum pressure the tyre needs to carry its heaviest load, not the tyre’s optimal PSI).

Check tyre pressure with a gauge and fill when required.

  1. Check oil level and top up as required:Basically, one cannot undermine the importance of engine oil to a car. It’s most vital work is to grease up all the moving parts in your engine so they don’t wear and tear themselves. It likewise exchanges heat from the combustion cycle and holds all the dreadful byproducts of combustion, directing it to the oil filter. Your car is endangered of been wrecked if there is no oil lubricating your engine.

It is essential to inculcate the habit of frequently checking your oil level, to guarantee your car constantly has enough oil. Checking your engine oil level is super simple. Everything you need is a clean paper towel, sufficient light, at most two to three minutes.

Steps

  • Before checking your oil level, verify your car is on flat ground so you get a precise reading. Find your engine’s dipstick. Normally, it has an image of an oil can or just reads “OIL.”
  • Pull the dipstick out.
  • Wipe it clean with a paper towel.
  • Insert the dip stick back into the hole, Ensure it’s in all way.
  • Pull out the dipstick once more, however, when looking at it, do not turn it upside down. This ruins your readings when the oil run upward. The dipstick will have two imprints at the base. If the oil line is between the two imprints, it’s good. If it’s beneath the base imprint, some more oil is needed.

Stick to the Maintenance Plan Recommended in Your Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual

Your vehicle also needs maintenance works that are carried out less often, yet are essential to increase the life of your vehicle. These includes;

  • Oil changes;
  • Tyre rotation;
  • Changing the coolant;
  • Cleaning different engine components;
  • Changing transmission fluid, to mention a few.

Try not to go by the mechanics’ prescribed maintenance plan. They frequently propose that you come in more often and carry out maintenance that you actually do not need. Most new cars are intended to keep running for 8,000 kilometers before requiring maintenance.

In recent times, modern cars have turn out to be progressively complicated with installed computerized gadgetry, maintenance work now regularly needs an auto-mechanic with the sufficient and adequate training and equipment to accurately finish the job. At the same time, there are still a couple maintenance works that most people can do themselves.

  • Change engine oil each 8,000 kilometers;
  • Change air filter each 19,000 kilometers;
  • Rotate tyres each 8,000 to 16,000 kilometers; Front and back tyres wear in an unexpected way. Frequently rotating your tyres balances their common wear pattern, ensuring a smoother and more secure ride. It additionally expands the life of your tyres, which will spare you cash if they were to be replaced.

 

Always ensure Your Car is Clean

Other than performing customary maintenance, another imperative piece of dealing with your car is keeping it clean.

Wash your car frequently. On a daily basis, our cars are subjected to sun, grease and grime, acid rain, haze, tree sap, dead bugs, and to top it all off, the acidic compound of bird droppings. These things wash away paint, and once that is gone, they will eat at the metal in your car. While neglecting to wash your car won’t bring about instant harm, but the components will erode your vehicle after some times. The regularity of washing your car depends on the area and atmosphere it is being used.

Manual Transmission Car Driving Tips for Learners and Amateurs

Manual Transmission Car Driving Tips for Learners and Amateurs

Manual Transmission Vehicle Driving Tips

The technique applied in manual transmission cars while in driving along a steep slope is to utilize the handbrake as a safety control to prevent the vehicle from moving back to the bottom of the hill while you change your feet between the pedals and the breaks during the high slope drive. People new to driving usually encounter great problems when driving on a high slope because they are generally nervous about the car moving back to the starting point of the slope, a little backward movement of the car destabilizes them and they lose the right to decide on what pedal they should depress. The fact remains that if one can drive okay on a leveled road, the skills are transferable and the person should be able to move well on a high slope.

Using the below explained method you will only need to regulate your speed by changing your feet on the pedals as you drive up a hilly terrain.

Method for driving a Manual Transmission vehicle

Begin by selecting GEAR 1 and depress the gas pedal (accelerator) so that the engine sound increase than what it had being when on a leveled surface, then depress the clutch to the level where the engine starts to connect to the wheels (this point is called the biting point). At this point keep both of your feet still.

Now, check around to make sure it is safe to move also check your side mirrors and rear view mirror to ensure your safety, then very slowly release the handbrake by a few millimeters. When the car moves either a forward or backward movement, ensure your feet are kept still on the pedals and engage the hand brake back on.

While the hand brake is still engaged on the slope now, adjust your feet with the vehicle firmly secured, verify if the road is still safe by making all your safety checks and then try the process again. Go over this process again and again till you can exercise full control over the movement of the car.

With time and by making use of this routine, you will realize that your vehicle cannot move back more than a few feet and you will be comfortable driving on high slopes. Also, with frequent practice, you will figure out the right feel for the clutch pedal and after sometimes you will not need to engage the handbrake before driving up hill. It’s just a matter of confidence.

Decision making while driving a Manual transmission Vehicle

An amateur driver is always faced with problems of  making decision on when to move on or stop. Frequently, different people make wrong decisions while driving and this is due to certain reasons. For instance, a driver might make a late decision to stop for a cyclist or for another car due to his lack of attention on the road or he might be indecisive. There is an easy solution to indecision in future encounters, basically there are just three choices;

  • Stop
  • Go
  • Don’t know

If you can ascertain that the road is clear; GO

If the Road is not clear; DON’T GO

Amateur drivers are commonly faced with the don’t know situation, so in other to stay safe, if you DON’T KNOW then DON’T GO.  As a matter of fact being unsure about something is an instinctive safety caution suggested to keep you safe.

As time goes on and more driving experience is gained, you will find it easy to make effective decisions on the spot without any hesitations. As a safety rule, whenever you are moving towards a confusing situation just ask your self is it safe to go? If yes, then don’t hesitate but if no or may be, just stay safe, don’t go.

Assess your response time

This assessment will help to know and establish how fast and swiftly you respond or react to a sudden and unexpected occurrence. It is not a new thing to be caught unaware by an occurrence when driving. An easy way to do this is to set goals for yourself while driving.  These goals help in increasing your response time after much routine practice.  Try as much as possible to meet up with every goal you set in the best possible time through the safest means. Remember only the living can drive.

Double check blind spots

It cannot be overstressed to make sure it is safe when driving. You should always be sure of your safety at all time. You must check and establish that the road is clear before moving. Other than the areas visible to everyone when driving, there are some other areas a little bit hidden to someone sitting on the driver’s seat.  Clearly, the front is visible to anybody seating in the driver’s seat, also behind the car is visible through the rear view mirror. But importantly, there are some areas of any vehicle which requires special attention, generally this are areas that are not very visible to a driver. These areas are referred to as blind spots. A blind spot usually can’t be seen by any of your side mirror, or the rear view mirror.

These blind spots should be checked before moving at all times to ensure safety of the driver and other passengers in the car.

 In conclusion, the whole purpose of these manual transmission car driving tips is to ensure the safety of an amateur driver and the passengers he might be carrying in his car. Also to ensure the safety of other road users like; other vehicle drivers, cyclist and as well as pedestrians. Furthermore, it is to ensure that the driver uses the car in a way that does not cause the  destruction or damage to the vehicle.

Good luck

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Features That Ensures Safety in Cars

Car safety system

Features That Ensures car safety A car is expected to have some features to enhance the safety of people which could be its owner, driver or passengers. These safety features reduce the risk to theft, accident, which could be fire or road accident. It can also reduce the fatality of accident when it occurs. Some important features that ensures car safety include the seat belts, auto emergency braking, antilock braking system, brake assist system, fog lamps, airbags, daytime running light, pre-cash safety system, adjustable steering column, head restraints, reversing camera, lane keeping assist among others. The key ones are discussed in the following paragraphs.

  1. Seat Belts

A car seat belt can also be called the safety belt which is used to ensure the safety of the occupants of a car. The seat belt holds the occupant firmly to the car seat which will resist the colliding of the occupant with the interior part of the car, the throwing out of the occupant from the car when accidents occur  or when the car stops without prior notice. Death, serious injuries are maximized with accurate use of seat belts. Other Safety seat belts are seatbelt pretensioner driver, seatbelt pretensioner passenger,seatbelt rear 3 point. The seatbelt pretentionsers helps in the tightening of the seatbelt.

  1. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB)

This safety measure helps to slow down the car when it is in danger. AEB works with or without the driver’s knowledge or application. It is also used to reduce the impact of a collision when the brake of the car fails, when the application of the brake is late or when it cannot stop the car from colliding. Also, the speed of the car can be reduced with the AEB.  This system is autonomous because it works without being governed by the driver and it applied brakes in critical period to avoid accidents.

  1. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)

ABS allows the wheels of the car to be firm with the road and increase the braking distance during the application of the car brakes. It reduces friction between the wheels and the road surfaces, thereby, ensuring firm control of the car on slippery, sandy or rough surfaces. The wheels are prevented from seizing, rotating or sliding lock on braking with the help of the ABS.

  1. Brake Assist System

This system also works in times of emergency by increasing pressure. It works as a detector and a savior before and during collision. Being a detector, the BAS detects whether there is a sudden stoppage of the car from moving by the driver. If there is a sudden need to stop the car and the brakes do not apply adequate pressure to stop the car, BAS comes in as a savior by applying the needed pressure.

  1. Airbags

There are different and many airbags in a car. They are the front driver airbag, front passenger airbag, side curtain airbag, knee bolster airbag, seat-mounted side airbag, thorax airbags, and the inflatable seatbelt airbag. Airbags  are generally  known as air bags cushion, available for the drivers and the passengers. They inflates and deflates in front of the driver or passengers to prevent the colliding of the occupants’ head with the steering, thus, preventing head injury during accidents.

  1. Adjustable Steering Column

Adjusts the steering wheel to suit what the driver wants. The height of the steering wheel and its distance to the driver are adjusted for safety, comfort and to allow the driver to see over the steering.

  1. Pre-cash safety system

This system is a pre-collision system that helps the car to detect impending danger and to slow it down even without the hitting of the pedal by the foot. There it is, when driving your fully maitained car, always ensure your car safety has been considered

Simple Machines And Its Classifications

The Pulleys, levers, fulcrum,wheel and axles wedge

Machines are energy-using tools with many parts used by people to perform an action. They are used instead of manpower to make work done easier, faster and with much accuracy. Machines save both time and human energy. They are used everywhere and for different purposes. We have machines in houses, farms and in all forms of industries. When machines are used, force is applied and there is/are energy conversion.

Little input force is needed by simple machines to produce great output, the output force >input force. The concept “mechanical advantage” is used in simple machines. Mechanical advantage (MA) is the ratio of the output force and the input force,  MA= Output ÷ Input. Generally, there are six classes of simple machines. They are the lever, pulley, screw, wheel and axle, inclined plane and wedge.

Read more about advantages of using machines here or read about disadvantages of using machines here

  1. The Lever

A lever is a simple machine and one of the tools used in the olden days. It has a pivot or fulcrum on which a load is being moved with the exertion of force.  Common examples include the scissors, pliers, sugar tongs, stapler, bottle opener, nutcrackers, wheelbarrow, crowbars, fishing rods, hammer, see-saw, door handles, among others.

A lever is characterized by the fulcrum (pivot), load and effort. The position or the arrangement of the fulcrum, lever and effort dictates the class of a lever. Levers generally have three classes which are; first-class lever, second class lever and third class lever.

(i) First Class levers

In this class, the fulcrum is in the middle of the load and effort. There is no exact position of the load or effort. Each of the two can be at one of the two ends. Levers that fall in this category include the scissors, pliers, hammer.

(ii) Second Class Levers

Here, the load is in-between the fulcrum and the effort. Examples include the nutcracker, wheelbarrow, opener, and stapler.

(iii) Third Class Levers

The effort is between the fulcrum and the load in third class levers. Examples are sugar tongs, fishing rods etc.

  1. The Wheel and Axle

Wheels are circular in shape and they rotate. Axle, on the other hand, is a rod placed at the centre of a wheel. Axles allow the rotation of the wheel. Examples are the car wheels, bicycle wheels, gears. They are also found in machines that make circular motion such as the fans.

  1. The Pulleys

Pulley has a wheel and an axle in it but it is different from the wheel and axle because of a rope that connects the wheel and an axle. Some pulleys use chain or other forms of chords instead of the rope. Two pulleys are sometimes connected together to make work done easier or to move or lift heavy weight. Pulleys move loads both in a linear (up and down) and oscillatory (front and back) motion. They are used in industries to carry cargos, for raising and lowering flags, in elevators and also in window blinds.

  1. The Inclined Plane

They are slant, horizontal and sloppy in nature with one end higher than the other end. This simple machine lift objects higher and to move things from the lower side to the other side, which is usually higher. They are used to move heavy objects to and from the vehicles. Other examples are the ladder, stairs, escalators, wheelchairs among others.

  1. The Wedge

Wedges are used to hold things together, to cut, break things into two or to separate things from each other. Examples are the office pins, needle, ax, nails, staple, shovel, and knife.

  1. The Screw

A screw is helical and a form of an inclined plane with a threaded shank and a point used to drive screw into a material, wood or a soft object and also used to hold things together. It is inclined in nature because it also moves from a low position to a higher position. Examples are bolts, faucets, drill etc.

Read more about advantages of using machines here or read about disadvantages of using machines here

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Disadvantages of Using Machinery

pollution and unemployment

There is virtually nothing with advantages that doesn’t have its disadvantages. As good as the uses of machines are, they also have their shortcomings. Machinery are first created with no harm and are made to make life easy, increase production and also for accuracy but humans now use machinery in a void a manner causing laziness and harm to them and people around them. Machines on its own also affect the economy state through high rate of unemployment. The major disadvantages of machines are discussed further.

Read about simple machines here

  1.  Cost

Machines are expensive to buy, maintain and repair. A machine with or without continuous use will get damaged and worn-out. Only the rich have access to good quality machines and also its maintenance. Machines are very expensive when they are compared with human labour that is cheap and available. When there is no or unstable electricity, some machines need an alternative means of power (the use of generators and power plant) which will increase cost in terms of fuel and maintenance.

  1. Difficulties in Manual and Operation

Machines generally are difficult to understand, set up and operate. Many machines are made in foreign countries and are being imported. Some of the manuals of these imported machines are written in foreign language(s) with no or little interpretation. When such machines are being purchased, the users may encounter little difficulties in its operation. This problem is always solved with the help of operators but sometimes the operators also find it hard to interpret the usage if the machines are of new brands, uncommon or limited in supply.

  1. Monotony and Laziness

The repeated use of machines leads to monotony and boredom. Knowledge is being restricted and advancement, excursion and the addition of knowledge is most likely not possible. Boredom, depression can also set in when there is no change or when one is glued with the use of machines. People are more lazy, less dedicated and will not be encouraged to task their brains, make use of their potentials or go extra miles with the use of machines. All they need is to press buttons, cursors and they have their work done.

  1. Lack of Social Interaction and Alienation

In capital intensive industries where there are more machines than labour, there will no or little interaction with colleagues and co-workers. Workers are expected to interact with their machines for hours with no chance of seeing outside the walls of the workplace or having visitors. Workers are being alienated from other people when machines are used. By this, their social lifestyles are being damaged unconsciously.

  1. Health Disorders

When a man or woman is used to machines doing all the work, he or she is prone to health challenges like depression, obesity and hypertension. Also, the use of machines in industries can cause injuries, accidents, loss of body parts and even death.

  1.  Pollution

Machines release waste products and poisonous gases which are harmful to the environment, man’s and animal’s health. This is one of the great risks machines pose to life. Apart from the poisonous gases, noise that generate from heavy machines can lead to deafness and harm to the auditory nerves, the release of waste products can contaminate the water bodies, thus, resulting to water-borne diseases,  death of aquatic organisms and the displacement of the biosphere.

  1. Unemployment

The economy is now more of capital intensive than labour intensive as less people are now employed. This is so because machines have replaced man labour. In recent industries, machines are more than men.

  1. Reduction in Creativity

With the use of machines, hand work creativeness that were rampant in the traditional era are reduced. The use of craft, beads making, hats making, raffia works are gradually going into extinction.

Read about advantages of using machineries here

Read about simple machines here

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The Body Components of a Car

Parts of a car

The body components of a car are those parts that can easily be seen because they are on external.  A higher percentage of them are publicly known. They include the bonnet, tyres, rims, bumper, windows, doors, cowl screen, radiator core support, roof rack, deck lid, trim package, front clip, fascia rear and support, fender/wing, boot, valance, pillar, grill, rocker, spoiler, welded assembly, quarter panel. Common seven components are further highlighted.

  1. The Bonnet

The bonnet of a car can also be called the hood, made by steel  or aluminium. This part covers the engine of the car. It is opened when there is need to repair or maintain the engine of the car and closed when done. The bonnet can be held by an individual or with the use of a latch. This part is made up of the latch handle, release cable and the hood latch assembly.

  1. The Bumper

A car has two bumpers which are attached both to the front and rear of a car and made of plastics or foams. They are made to bear collision. The bumper reduces the collision effect of two vehicles and also protects the pedestrian by getting hurt when hit by the car. A bumper can be repaired when crushed by accident. The bumper could be exposed or not.

  1. The Tyre

Car tyres or tires are mostly black in colour, rubber in form of a ring, big in sizes and are placed on the wheels of the car. They have inner tubes which are inflated. A car moves on four wheels, thus, four tyres are fixed on the rims. Two are fixed at the extreme two ends to the front of the car and two to the rear. Movement is possible with the four tyres in contact. They absorb shock and ensure a grip of the car with the road. Accidents can occur when one of the tyres is faulty, removes or flattened. The tyres are inflated when flat and changed when worn out.

  1. Car Rim

This part holds the tyre and tube in position. The tyres are placed directly on the rims, thus, there are four rims on a car- two at the front part and the other two in the rear. A rim is cylindrical in shape and made of steel. Rims differ in sizes and dimensions depending on the car. The tyre must fit in perfectly on the rim for easy performance, movement and comfort.

  1. The Windows

Car windows comprise the glass (windscreen, side windows, rear windows and panel roof), windshield washer, seal, sunroof, window motor and the window regulator. The side windows can be lowered or raised. The windscreen part is also known as windshield. The windscreen protects the people in the car from wind, rain, sun rays or dirt. The sun roof could be fixed or not. This part is on the opening on top of a car, which when opened ensures proper ventilation.

  1. Car doors

The car doors are four and they consist of the outer and inner door handles, door control, latch, seal, locks, door watershield, the fuel tank and  hinge. The doors are opened with the handles. Someone inside make use of the inner handle while someone outside use the outer handle. The door is locked for security purpose when the car is on motion with the door lock. The door is made firm and intact when locked. The fuel tank or petrol tank also has a door. Here, the fuel is stored and supplied to the engine.

  1. The boot

The boot or trunk of a car is majorly situated at the back of the car but some cars have their boot in the front. It is used for storage. The boot has a door which could be on the top, bottom or side depending on the design of the car. A boot typically has a lid that covers the luggage or anything stored in the trunk.

The Toyota Corolla (Historical and Present Models)

Toyota Corolla
The Toyota corolla is a line of efficient cars manufactured by Toyota. Commenced in 1966, the corolla succeeded to become the most popular car in the world in 1974 and since then has been one of the bestselling cars. The name corolla is derived from the Toyota crows for sedans which is in accordance with the Toyota naming custom. No producer is better known for building strong, dependable cars than Toyota. Furthermore, the Corolla was the car that made that reputation. 
 
The Corolla is the oldest in Toyota’s present stock of Nigerian items, excluding Land Cruiser. Also, Corolla is the most popular car line ever, with more than 30 million Corollas sold around the world. 
 
GENERATIONS OF TOYOTA COROLLA
Original (1968-1969)
The first Toyota corolla designing was built with tremendous simplicity. It was introduced in 1966 in Japan. The first Corolla was riding on a 90-inch wheelbase in two-door car, four-door vehicle and two-door wagon body styles. Energy was sent to a four-speed manual transmission and afterward to a strong rear axle by a 60-horsepower, 1.1-liter overhead valve four-cylinder mounted longitudinally in the engine bay. The automatic transmission was not yet invented at that time.
The pioneer Corolla expresses no form of sophistication and it wasn’t attractive, however it was simple to the point that there were no parts to break. 
 
 
Second Generation (1970-1974) 
The first Corolla was truly too little and underpowered for users tastes, as okay as it seemed to be. For the 1970 model year, the second Corolla was introduced with a wheelbase extended to 91.9 inches and force originating from a new 1.2-liter version of the OHV four making 73 horsepower. 
The 1970 Corolla was a considerably more cozy and secured machine than the 1969 model. An automatic transmission was introduced to complement it. It rapidly turned into the second top rated car on the planet. 
In the 1971 model year, there was an improvement on the Corolla as the engine increased to 1.6 liters and the productivity extended to 102 horsepower. The grille was upgraded for the 1972 model year. There were few progressions for 1973 and 1974 models. 
 
Third Generation (1975-1978) 
The 1975 Corollas included a raise in the center area in the body framework..Five Corolla models was accessible for 1975. 
  • A two-door vehicle controlled by a 1.2-liter motor
  • A four-door car,
  • A two-door hardtop,
  • A game arranged SR5 hardtop and
  • A five-door station wagon  all fueled by the 1.6-liter four.
The standard transmission in all models, aside from the SR5, was a four-speed manual. A five-speed manual was again standard in the SR5 and discretionary in alternate Corollas. A three-speed automatic was additionally available to those who needs it. Outflows measures were severe during the mid-’70s and an exhaust system was incorporated in the ’75 Corolla surprisingly. A new Corolla line called the “Liftback” by Toyota was added to the line for 1976, its a three-door hatchback. 
 
 Forth generation (1979-1983)
The 1979 Corolla was a more sophisticated and enjoyable car than the ones before it. However, there are some improvements before the end of this generation. The 1979 Corolla was introduced with the tough yet primitive leaf spring rear suspension. The new unibody over that suspension was bigger while the wheelbase was currently 94.5 inches. The corolla was in a square shaped, clean cut way, with stronger and more charming body. The new Corolla was powered by a 75-horsepower, 1.8-liter version of the OHV four with four- and five-speed manual and three-speed automatic transmissions obtainable. 
While the 1980 and 1981 Corolla lines followed the 1979 model, in 1982 the automatic transmission was moved up to a four-speed unit  an uncommon level of modernity for an economy car of the period. The Corolla for 1983 came with a 1.6-liter overhead cam engine that was both smoother and more intense than the past 1.8. Yet, it was just a taste of what was to come next. 
 
Fifth Generation (1984-1987) 
Toyota at last yielded to the developing front-wheel drive convention of the 1980s. The 1984 Corolla was introduced with a front-wheel drive. The front-drive Corolla was as normal as it had been in a back driver design. The same back drive Corolla 1.6-liter, SOHC engine sat transversely in the front-driver’s engine bay feeding either a five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission. Loop springs held up the back. 
In 1985 and 1986, the Corolla lineup did not significantly have any change. At that point in 1987 another front-drive Corolla “FX” car was presented. 
 
Sixth Generation (1988-1992) 
With the 1988 upgrade, the back drive Corolla coupe and Liftback were substituted with new front-drive car. The new Corolla was actually fundamentally more sophisticated and efficient than the back drivers they replaced. 
The 6th generation more conventionally styled than the ultra-boxy fifth-generation vehicle. The 6th generation Corolla was produced using the same 95.6-inch wheelbase as the fifth, however it was just about an inch more extensive. 
There were no upgrade in the 1989 model, the base engine was currently at 102 hp. A passage level standard car was added to the lineup  it had all the fundamental Corolla hardware. The coupe were stopped after the 1991 model year.
 
Seventh Generation (1993-1997) 
Fundamentally bigger than the car it substituted, the 1993 Corolla rode on a 97.0-inch wheelbase. Corolla Vehicles were available in standard DX and LE trim, while a front-wheel-drive wagon was offered in DX trim just. All cars rode on a completely autonomous suspension, however DX and LE models profited from an extra stabilizer bar in front. 
The 7th generation Corolla vehicle was powered by the same 1.6-liter motor used in the 6th generation car. The LE model was ended for 1996. Furthermore, the front framework got a shading keyed casing and the taillight boards were reconsidered with the DX getting a full-width treatment. 
In 1997, a unique CE (Classic Edition) vehicle was introduced and it joined various famous elements. Among the standard goodies were power windows and locks, A/C, force controlling, a four-speaker stereo, manual remote mirrors and uncommon floor mats and outside badging. 
 
Eighth Generation (1998-2002)
The Corolla developed again in its eighth duplication, however there was a reduction in the weight of the car. The mileage was enhanced by 10 percent over the past generation; with the standard five-speed manual, a Corolla could reach 38 on the highway and 31 mpg in the city.
Gear levels were much the same as on the past generation, however the 1998 corolla was introduced with a power steering and double outside mirrors and there were new additional items like side airbags and a CD player. Changes for 1999 were minor. 
 
Ninth Generation (2003-2008) 
Just like every other Corolla, the 9th generation was fabricated to reduce the inconveniences in driving. It was cozier, strong, effective, roomy and fabricated to a higher quality than the other ones. Still, we were never charmed with this Corolla given the rising nature of its rival. There are various vehicles that offer proportional space, elements and functions for extensively less cash.” 
With a wheelbase of 102.4-inch The ninth-generation Corolla was more than 5 inches longer than the previous ones. The engine of the 2003 Corolla was improved to all-aluminum 1.8-liter, DOHC, 16-valve engine. In the previous years, Corolla was appraised at 130 hp. The five-speed manual transmission’s shifter was exact, while the four-speed automatic was smooth and supportive. 
 
Tenth Generation (2009-2012) 
The introduction of the tenth-generation Toyota Corolla in 2009 offered transformative changes from its former models. However the 2009 Corolla was practically the same size just its included width gave some more room. 
In the engine, the 1.8-liter four-chamber engine got a support in horsepower up to 132. A five-speed manual was standard, while optionally a four-speed automatic was available. 
Tragically, in the last couple of generations, the Corolla appeared to make a couple strides back as far as it interior quality. 
From in the driver’s seat, the Corolla was unremarkable. It has a cozy, calm ride, however gave little certainty in the driver’s seat. While the tenth-generation Toyota Corolla kept its status as one of the world’s top rated car.
 
Eleventh Generation (2013- Till Present) 
The eleventh generation of the Corolla was introduced in May 2012. The sedan is named the Corolla Axio while the wagon is called the Corolla Fielder. The redesigned model has slightly smaller exterior dimensions and is easier to drive in narrow alleys and parking lots.
The new Corolla Axio comes with either a 1.3-liter 1NR-FE or 1.5-liter 1NZ-FE four cylinder engines; front or all-wheel drive. Both 5-speed manual and automatic transmissions are available. The 1.3-liter engine and all-wheel drive version are available only with the automatic transmission.
The Corolla Fielder is available with 1.5-liter 1NZ-FE or 1.8-liter 2ZR-FAE four cylinder engines with a automatic transmission.