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A parenting style is the standard a parent use in rearing and raising a child. They are the ways and method adopted by parents in raising their children. It also involves the manners parents use to achieve their expectations from their children. Parents have different parenting styles. A spouse’s style may be different from that of the other partner. In most case, one style dominates the other, but it is also possible to have two parenting styles in a household. Most times, they are reflections of the parents’ personalities and how they want their children to be. There are four types of parenting styles-authoritarian, democratic, permissive and uninvolved. The way a child is being reared affects his or her overall growth, specifically the psychological development and academic performance. This depicts that a child academic performance depends largely on parenting styles.
The Authoritarian Parenting Style
The authoritarian parenting style is also known as harsh parenting style. Here, parents lay down rules and regulations that are expected to be strictly followed. Total obedience is expected of the child. Orders cannot be questioned and the reasons for parent actions are not explained. There is no freedom for the child and he/she cannot act against his or her parents’ will. He or she adheres strictly to the strict laid down rules. Children in this home are punished for any slight mistake. It is likened to the military regime where the leadership style is autocratic.
The Authoritative Parenting Style
Authoritative parenting style is also known as democratic parenting style. Parents also set rules like the authoritarian style but they give room for questions. Their laws are not strictly enforced. There is a balance between parent’s and children’s choice of action. Parents are less enforcer of laws, discipline is minimal and the reasons for actions are explained. High expectations are also expected from the child. They discipline the child only when necessary and are lenient with punishment. This is the best parenting style because parents enforce discipline at one end and love on the other. Parents seek consent from their children before making decisions.
Permissive Parenting Style
Permissive parenting also known as indulgent parenting rarely exerts discipline. Freedom of choice is given to the child. They are less demanding, warm and weak in law enforcement and unavailable for their children. Child’s decision dominates parent’s decision. Parents hardly enforce discipline. They are non-challant about the actions taken by a child. Some of them spoil their children with material things and freedom. This may result from their past. Some parents with humble background in attempt of not wanting their children to pass through the difficulties they faced spoil their children with wealth. Permissive parenting style might due to the busy, tight schedule of their parents or poverty. Some poor parents might lack control on their children due to their condition. An example is a child coming home at 2 am in the morning or a child going out dressed in a wayward way.
Neglectful Parenting Style
Uninvolved also known as neglectful parenting style is the worst of all. These types of parents are not concerned about the welfare and activities of the child. They do not set rules and regulations neither do they have emotions and do not expect the same. Children in these families vend for themselves and do whatever they like. Parents have a lackadaisical attitude towards their children and neglect them to take care of themselves. It is different from permissive in that parents do not give anything apart from food and shelter. They do not show love, warmth, affection to the child and are distant from the child. Many parents found in this division are those raised up by uninvolved parents. Some exhibiting this style of parenting are single parents or those with pre-marital kids or those abandoned by their friends, families or spouses. They transfer aggression on their children, sometimes neglect them intentionally leaving them to share the experience of what they went through.
The level of child’s academic performance depends on the type of upbringing they are exposed to. Parents help in developing reading habits and learning skills of children. Children raised under authoritarian parenting style are likely to be well behaved than those from permissive and uninvolved homes. Some children are prone to be over-dependent, have low self-esteem, poor social relation and may be tensed with difficult tasks. Some may turn rebellious or truants if they have the slight chance to freedom. They tend to exhibit the behaviours prohibited by their parents. They do not have the mind of their own and can be swayed by external pressure, Lack of confidence and other associated factors can reduce academic performance. Autocratic parents believe they know what is best for the children and they make decisions for them. Some choose careers for their children without considering the children’s ability, choice and passion. This can lead to the child failing or not been fulfilled. The talents of such children are being thrown into the bin as they are not encouraged to be used.
In democratic parenting style where there is conversation between the parents and their off-springs, the child’s academic performance is positively affected. Parents are fully involved in the academic area of children; they attend meetings such as the Parent-Teachers Association, help with school works, and monitor reading habit. They are so close to their children and vice versa. Any difficulties faced by the children are discussed with parents for way out. Children have freedom of choice in profession with parents available to guide and advise them. They are independent and confident with self-esteem in all areas of life. They have greater chances of attaining the peak of the career of their choice.
Lack of discipline and self – control are the major characteristics of children of permissive parents. They act anyhow and take their academics with levity knowing they will not be questioned at home. Some may be rude to teachers and school authorities which might result to their expulsion. Over-pampered children with no or low parental supervision may be totally independent and may result to various forms of delinquencies. They are breakers of laws since they believe they can do anything with their parents as backbones.
As a result of the parent(s) not involved in the well being of the child, the academic performance of such child will be affected. They hardly help the kids with homework, they do not attend meetings organised by the school thereby not knowing the academic status of their child(ren). Since parents are not interested in the kind of friends their children move with, there is a high possibility of such children to move with wrong people and be influenced by peer pressure thereby get engaged in all forms of juvenile delinquencies such as truancy, use of hard drugs, alcoholism, robbery, pre-marital sexual activities. They look up to their friends for counsel, advice, care and love after bring neglected by their parents. All these negative acts lead to poor performance in studies and can lead to the children dropping out from school even without the parent’s knowledge.
In conclusion, parents are advised to be democratic when dealing with their children as it will affect the overall growth of their children especially the academic aspect. Academic success results largely from parental influence. Love, attention and care should be given to children at home. There should be flexibility in decision making. Audience should be given to them as they know what will make them happy. Their talents, abilities should be encouraged. Punishments should not be rigid and discipline should occur when necessary. Their academic performance should be the priority of parents ( you can read about Education is the best Legacy here) ; they should be helped with school works and assignments. Reading habits and friends should be monitored. Parents should reduce their busy schedules and pay attention to their kids. Children should not be neglected because they are gifts from God and also His heritage. If all these measures associated with authoritative/democratic parenting style can be adopted, there will be changes, improvement in child’s academic success. It can even restore a lost child.