The Importance Of Knowing Your Genotype And Your Blood Group Before Marriage

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Meaning of Genotype

Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual with reference to a trait or multiple traits. They are the collection of genes passed from parents to the children. Alleles or Allelomorphs are also referred to as the genes. Children born of a parent will have a different genotype. Exceptions are seen in cases of twins or multiple births that are fertilized from the same egg. Human beings have two alleles with each pair inherited from each parent. An allele represents a gene.

Before the advent of modern medicine (read about how modern medicine came to Nigeria here), there was high mortality and infant death rates. All these children lost to the cold hands of death were referred to as “abikus”. All these happened because there was no knowledge of blood group or genotype. People that get married irrespective of their genetic makeup should not be blamed for their ignorance. But with the advent of modern medicine( read about modern medicine and its advantages ), biological explanations are now being made on the causes of infant death rate, this led to the discovery of sickle cells in Africa, especially in Nigeria. Before marriage, partners should be aware of their genotypes and blood group as the society no longer provides an excuse for this ignorance (read an interesting article on no excuse for ignorance here). Parents should check the genotype of their children during pregnancy or immediately after birth. This will help to know the health status of the child and what they have to do to sustain and maintain the child’s health. (Read an interesting article on  how a child’s blood group is formed from the parent’s blood here)

There are four genotypes in humans – AA, AS, SS and AC. AC genotype is not so common and popular unlike the other three. SS and AC are the abnormal genotypes or the sickle cells. The knowledge of genotype is important when choosing life partners. Intending couples should know both their own genotype as well as their partner’s genotype at the early stage of their relationship before they are well rooted in love and emotions. Emotions and time spent in the relationship can cloud people’s judgment or decision to break up if they are not compatible, thus, giving birth to sickle cell children and subjecting themselves and their children to pain, torture, and agony.

 

Possible Outcomes of Different Genetic Combination

AA + AA = AA, AA, AA, AA
AA + AS = AA, AS, AA, AS
AA + SS = AS, AS, AS, AS
AA + AC = AA, AA, AA, AC
AS + AS = AA, AS, AS, SS
AS + SS = AS, SS, SS, SS
AS + AC = AA,  AC, AS,SS
SS + SS = SS, SS, SS, SS
AC + SS = AS, AS, SS, SS
AC + AC = AA, AC, AC, SS

People with the genotype AA are prone to malaria sickness (Read about why people with genotype AA are prone to malaria here) at their early ages. Sickle cell arises when there is any blockage in the blood vessels which inhibits the flow of oxygen. When the red blood cell does not have the required oxygen, there will be changes in its original shape (disc shape) to a “Sickle-like” or “crescent-like shape”, Thus, the name “sickle cell”. Sickle cell patients experience severe pains in body parts that lack oxygen flow. Their bone marrows will fail to produce red blood cells and this result in anemia. To save this crisis, blood is usually transfused to them.

In terms of compatibility, someone with an AA genotype can marry anybody. It is safe for someone with AS to marry someone with AA genotype. The combinations of AS and AS, AS and AC should not be risked. There is a probability of having an SS. Although. Two sickle cells should not even have a relationship or get married. Individuals with the AA genotype should help you prevent genetic abnormalities by marrying the AS, AC, and SS.  By this, we are hopeful to eradicate sickle cells in the world.

 

Blood Groups / Blood Types

The red blood cells that transport oxygen in the body carries two antigens, which are the A and B antigens. These antigens determine the blood group. Blood groups are represented with A, AB, O, and B. When the red blood cell carries only the A antigen, the blood group is ‘A’, it is ‘B’ when the blood cell has only the B antigen. When both A and B antigens are present, the blood group is ‘AB’. Finally, when there is neither A nor B antigen, the blood group is referred to as ’O’.
Below is the crossbreed of different blood groups and the products (offsprings)

A + A = A or O
B + B = B or O
A + B = A, B, AB or O
A + O = A or O
B + O = B or O
A + AB = A, B or AB
O + O = O only

The genotype of blood type A is AA or AO. The antigens on the blood cell are A and antibodies in the blood plasma are B.

For blood type B, the genotype is BB or BO with B as the antigens and B as antibodies.

The blood type AB (also known as universal blood recipients and rarest blood type) has the genotype to be AB.  The antigens are both A & B, and no antibodies in the blood plasma.

The blood type  O (also known as universal blood donors) has the genotype to be OO. There are no antigens but has antibodies to be A or B.

Rhesus factor or the ‘D’ antigen is also found on the surface of the red blood cell. Those with it are seen to be “rhesus positive or Rh+” and those without are “rhesus negative or Rh-“. There is a possibility of having both Rh + and Rh -. A person who is Rh + will produce antibodies against Rh – blood cells. A patient with Rh + can receive blood from someone who is Rh + or Rh -. But an Rh – can only receive blood from Rh -.

Knowing your blood type is important during pregnancy. If the mother is Rh- and the father is Rh +, the fetus can either inherit the Rhesus gene from either the father or mother.  Complications (Rh incompatibility) occur when the Rhesus factor of the fetus contradicts that of the mother. This is common when a pregnant woman has Rh – and the fetus has Rh+. If the blood of the Rh + baby mixes with the mother’s, it can lead to the production of antibodies against the baby’s blood known as Rh-sensitization. To curb this disease, pregnant women should always meet regularly with obstetricians and human anti-D immune globulin or immunoglobulin should be administered to those with the complications.

 

General Note

*O are universal blood donors (donate blood to all blood types).
*AB+ are universal blood recipients (receive from all blood types).
*A+ can receive blood from A+, A-, O+ & O-
* A- from A- & O-
*B+ from B+, B-, O+ & O-
*B- from B- & O-
*AB- from A-, B-, AB- & O-
* O+ from O+ & O-
*O- from O-

 

In Conclusion

The importance of knowing one’s blood group and genotype before marriage cannot be overemphasized. It determines the donor and recipient of blood transfusion and also helps in determining paternity. A person with one blood type or group can produce antibodies against the other. For instance, a person with blood type A makes antibodies against blood type B. If this person is given blood of type B, his or her type antibodies will bind to the antigens on the type B blood cells cause the blood to clump together. Compatibility of blood type is necessary before transfusing blood in times of accidents and emergencies.

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104 Replies to “The Importance Of Knowing Your Genotype And Your Blood Group Before Marriage”

  1. Thank you so much for this lovely and informative article. I’ve shared it among my peers for them to learn too. Thumbs up

  2. Hi, found this article via my research of ‘what genotype am I’ – I know my blood group but still have no idea how to find out my genotype… Maybe I’m looking at the wrong places or do I need to see a doctor for this test?
    Thank you, I found the article very rewarding and shall bookmark it for further reading and studies.

  3. I am an AA and I live this girl who us AS. She has 3 siblings who were SS and they are all dead. This information is very eye opening. But I want to know if it’s possible for us to have SS if we marry, as the family has SS in their gene already?

  4. With profound pleasure ,am over joyed to learn much about what may help one choose the right and compatible marriage partner.
    BRAVO.

  5. I gained a lot from reading this article. I never did d genotype test before but I did it after reading this. It will guide me in my future union.

  6. I have read several write ups and articles on the above subject but this article leaves a footprint in my academic learning.. Thanks a bunch…you are the best.

  7. How do people get their genotypes?

    Simple, from your biological parents.

    If papa bomboy has a genotype AA and mama bomboy has a genotype AS, which genotype do their children have? What we do in theory is this, you cross each of those letters so that you have AA, AS, AA, AS? Therefore, for each pregnancy and each bomboy they delivery has a 50:50 probability of being AA or AS.

    What if their genotypes were AA (for papa bomboy) and SS (for mama bomboy); you do the crossing again: AS, AS, AS, AS. Therefore, it is very UNLIKELY that any of their children will have a genotype outside of AS.

    You will see that I have used the word unlikely because poo happens. They might end up having a child who is either completely AA or SS but whatever happens, a child’s genotype is never outside of the parents. Eg. a man and woman who are both AA can never have children with genotype starting or ending with ‘S’. If it happens, talk to your landlord (just kiddin’).

    So for you to get AC, you must have a parent who carries a ‘C’ in his or her genotype. I hope that answers your question?

    One more thing: Are there any clinical features of Hemoglobin C like Hemoglobin S?

    In the case that you’re AC, well the good news is that MOST TIMES THERE ARE NO SYMPTOMS, but occasionally, there is JAUNDICE.

    THE BEST PART IS THAT YOU CAN LIVE A NORMAL LIFE WITH AC!!!

    Hope that has helped!!!

    , fsb
    4 Likes 1 Share
    Re: Please Explain What Genotype Ac Is by fsb(m): 6:06am On Feb 07, 2008
    And just for the case of mentioning genotypes, you could have:

    Regular Genotype: AA (healthy as healthy can be)

    Traits: AC, AD, AF, AG, A+FAST, AE and AS (not associated with any clinical signs, symptoms or syndromes – they as relatively as healthy as AA)

    Genotypes associated with clinical features: SS, SC, CC (are associated with clinical signs, symptoms and syndromes)

    Please note that the marriage thing is this, I really don’t know what the recent trend is but the important thing is to make sure your genotype of you and your partner don’t match up in a way as to produce an children with SS, SC and CC. These children only suffer for nothing!

    I hope my post was useful to somebody out there!!!

    , fsb

    PS: Please note that the list of genotypes above isn’t in any way exhaustive. Those are the most common I’ve mentioned, there are several others.

  8. Gud Pm sir,
    My question is all about AA’s prone to malaria?
    How can i conquer malaria, drug or any step to make?
    Pls your respond needed urgently.
    Thanks

  9. I really enjoyed this write up, thanks and God bless u for the knowledge you have impacted on me.

  10. you have given me a huge satisfaction! am indeed elated with you. so simple and educative may the good lord pave and open greater doors of opportunities for you. thanks alot

  11. and you are a good reader for reading and understanding all of the write up, am glad we could be of help

  12. You are a very good teacher for explaining all this, I learnt a lot from this write up I now know what I stand for and how to choose my partner so as not to have sick children. Thanx

  13. you must be a very good teacher to make this piece so simple and self explanatory
    i have really acquired enough knowledge from your article.BRAVO

  14. I am happy to read this fantastic article. It helps to developed and gives me more knowledge to knw more about blood group and genotype. I am very happy.

  15. I just read your article on Blood Group and Genotype, this is very interesting and educating I have learnt so much on this piece thanks much God Bless

  16. Is there an advancement in medicine that could help reduce the risk of SS child for an AS and AS couple. In a dilemma right now .

  17. wow, I really like this article and i oblige our young ones to go through this article before thinking of getting married as it will safe the unborn ones from the sickle cell disease.As for me, I’ve been cleared of all my doubts. thanks a lot.

  18. This is the ststement Judith was referring to
    “For blood type B, the genotype is BB or BO with A as the antigens and B as antibodies”
    Thx

  19. Hello Judith, i went through the article and still could not spot where it was written that blood type B has antigen A, but in case i some how missed it, for clarity purpose, blood type b has antigen b. thanks

  20. Hi there,
    I like this summary but i think you made a mistake when you said that for Blood type B the antigen is A,shouldn’t it be that the antigen is B?
    Kind regards
    Judith

  21. A good article.
    I learned alot and got better understanding. Bt u didn’t make mention of sc in ur analysis of genetic combination. Cos have search and found out about it. And I also have a relation that is sc. Please what is expected of an sc patients deit wise.
    Thanks in anticipation!

  22. am glad we could be of help to you, i hope you have been able to get the answers to the questions still on your mind

  23. your article gave me so much information althought there are still questions in my mind.. but still thank you for this information.. these article gives me more information in major blood testing group that my prof is reffering to..

  24. Remarkable! Its genuinely awesome writeup, I have got much clear idea on the topic of from this article

  25. Good day. Please I’ve read your article here and I wish to know further. Which of the genotypes is the best and strongest? I really want my friends to know the truth. Thanks.

  26. Heyy there, You’ve done a fantastic job. I will definitely digg it and personally suggest to my friends. I amm sure they will bbe benefited from this site.

  27. I’ve read several excellent stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking forr revisiting. I wonder how so much effort you put to maoe the sort of fantastic informativee web site

  28. I appreciate, resilt in I found exactly what I was taking a look for. You’ve ended my 4 day long hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

  29. I’ve read several excellent stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how so much effort yoou put to make thhe sort of fantastic informative web site

  30. Issues with genotype AThank you for the information. I’m AC, B-ve and I’ve just been diagnosed with a fatty liver. I am fairly healthy and not overweight and apart form the odd glass of wine not a heavy drinker and I was wondering if my blood has anything to do with It? Thanks

  31. I had much insight from the piece above, it propably went a long way to clear some doubts and further explain some stuffs I also find difficulty to understand. Thank you and continue your good work.

  32. I and my partner have the challenge of AS genotype, we both seem not letting go. Pls what do you suggest? Is there any possible way we can still get married? – ohasjude@gmail.com
    I hope to read from you ASAP. Thanks

  33. i so much like the information (knowing your genotype and blood group) given to the world at large, many of our youths today don’t know their blood group talk more off knowing their genotype. but with this information, many will go far in knowing their blood group and genotype.
    thanks so much.

  34. This Is Nice One, I Believe It Is Everybody Will Has Bcos It Is A Lesson Of Fact. PLS LET MAKE USE OF IT You Especially Lady.

  35. Please i am confused on this issue here, can someone with b blood group and genotype BB or Bo marry to a woman with AS genotype ?

  36. This is really both educative and informative. Exactly what I was looking for. Easy to understand for a layman like me. Whoever wrote this article understands that not everyone one is medically inclined. I get the picture now cause this article is so easy to understand… No ambiguous terms! Thanks a lot.

  37. Thank you so much for this info wil share it with my family, but was told by one Nigerian doc that all us Southern Africans we have genotype AA

  38. Enlightening article kudos for that. i have seen a case of some blood group varying (changing over time), and from every study that’s invariably impossible and such has raised a keen sense of curiosity with me and i’m thinking a professional hint or tip would assist to alleviate any cloud of doubt on such regard. You can reach me via jobfischer9@gmail.com. thank you

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