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Eye Defects And Corrections In Humans

Common Eye Defects

Human eye is the most important organ in the body. The eye serves as the king as nothing can be done easily without the eyes. Eyes are used mainly for sight. This delicate organ needs proper care and attention because its loss will throw a being into total darkness. Some people are born without sight while some develop sight defects over time. Some neonates lose their eyes due to pregnancy complications or diseases such as measles.

Despite the fact that eye defects in children are difficult to notice, there are various ways of detecting sight problems in children. Some are rubbing of eyes, squinting of eyes, sitting close to blackboards or television, placing books close to the eyes when writing and reading, watery eyes, frequent blinking of the eye lids, wandering eye, shutting of eyelids in daylight, the eyes turning red or any discomfort of the eyes. All these serves as symptoms of eye defects, which need urgent medical attention. It is better to treat and correct eye defects early so as to avoid total blindness. Adults also experience all these above eye defects but it is more easier for them to complain. Headache and eye pain are two important symptoms of eye problem.

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Common Eye Defects 
The common eye defects include short-sightedness, long-sightedness, astigmatism and cataract. These eye-defects are sometimes hereditary. 
1. Short-sightedness 
This eye defect is also known as myopia or near-sightedness. People suffering from this eye defect see only near objects or distance but do not see far or distant objects. The inability to see far objects is because the image is formed in front of the retina rather than forming on it. The eyeballs of the victims are long. This defect can be corrected with concave or diverging lenses by making the image form on the retina. The victims find it difficult to see lines( both horizontal and vertical) clearly. Corrections are made by prescribing

2. Long-Sightedness 
This eye defect is also known as hypermetropia, hyperopia or far-sightedness. Here, the victim can only see far or long distance but cannot see short distance or close objects. Images are formed behind the retina instead of forming on it. The eyeballs of those suffer from hyperopia are small. Corrections are made with the use of convex or converging lenses.

3. Astigmatism 
This is the third common eye defects in humans. Here, the rays of light do not focus on the retina, where images are formed. Instead, some parts of the rays of light are focused in front of the retina while others are focused at the back. This eye defect is corrected by cylindrical lens.

4. Presbyopia 
This is the eye defect that is common among old people. It is related to aging and seen mostly in people in their fifties. The ciliary muscles get weakened and the eye lose its accommodation ability. Presbyopia is an advance form of hypermetropia where victims find it more difficult to see long distance and objects. Correction of this eye defect is done by the use of reading glasses with convex lenses.

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5. Cataract
Cataracts are caused by the cloudiness of the lens and might later result to total blindness. This defect of the eye can be caused by the change in the protein of the lens, eye injury, smoking, drinking or exposure of the eye to the ultraviolet sun rays. Cataracts are majorly removed through surgeries.

There are some cases where some people suffer from both myopia and hypermetropia. Those people are being prescribed bi-focal lenses. The bi-focal lenses comprise both the concave and convex lenses. Some eye defects can be corrected with medicines or eye drops. Eye glasses or contacts are used by many people with impaired vision. Some eye defects can be corrected within a short periods of time while some are corrected over years.

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